Vogel, A. (1975). Ein gemeinsames Funktionsschema zur Beschreibung der Lautheit und der Rauhigkeit. Biol. Cybern.18, 31-40

A common model for loudness and roughness is discussed, which above all describes the processes leading to these sensations if sounds with strong time structure (amplitude-modulated tones, sound impulses, frequency-modulated tones) are applied. The common intermediate value in this model is the psycho-acoustical Excitation Level-Critical Band Rate-Time Pattern, which is deduced from the sound pressure by taking the linear temporal average. Moreover, by means of a functional model (analog computer), those processes leading to the sensation of loudness and roughness respectively were discussed qualitatively. In addition, a comparison between the results of the model and of psychoacoustical experiments concerning the loudness of frequency-modulated tones shows that the model describes the results of the most important psychoacoustical experiments even quantitatively correct.