Snow, W.B. (1936). Change in pitch with loudness at low frequencies. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 8, 14-19
The changes in pitch which result from changes in the loudness of low frequency tones were investigated for several frequencies between 75 and 1000 c.p.s. with a crew of 9 observers. The loudness levels covered the range 20 to 120, and both telephone receives and a loudspeaker were used as sound sources. Fletcher's pitch standard, a pure tone of loudness level 40, was employed. All consistent judgments gave pitch shifts downward with increasing loudness, but large differences between individuals were found. Two observers perceived no shifts at any frequeny or loudness while three others experienced changes greater than 35 percent at the highest intensity. Appreciable changes with time in individual judgments were found. There appeared insignificant difference between data obtained with telephone receivers or with the loudspeaker. A set of contours of equal loudness level, plotted on coordinates frequency and pitch change in percent, is given. These curves show a pitch change small at 1000 cycles, increasing to maximum at low frequency and decreasing for still lower frequencies. The frequency of greatest shift increased from 100 cycles at small loudness to about 200 at loudness level 120. The Appendix describes automatic test equipment that greatly simplified the testing routine and improved its accuracy.