Benedini, K. (1979). Ein Funktionsschema zur Beschreibung von Klangfarbenunterschieden. Biol. Cybern. 34, 111-117

A new functional model was developed for timbre differences of steady harmonic complex tones. One part of the model takes account of the ear's ability of separating the first six to eight partials of a complex tone. The calculation of timbre differences is based on the availability of resolvable partials and on a measure of their similarity in timbre quality, which decreases with increasing frequency distance. By this part of the model, timbre differences can be explained of complex tones with identical spectral envelope but different frequencies and/or amplitudes of constituent components. By another part of the model, the concept of sharpness is used which was found to be suitable to account for timbre differences between complex tones of different spectral envelopes.